Thus they constitute a new species [of things] and to them must be exclusively assigned the term social. Durkheim repudiated the doctrine that social phenomena can be explained solely in terms of personal utility, such as the striving of individuals to attain happiness.
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A perception of utility can motivate us to set specific causes in motion that will generate or maintain an institution, but this effect cannot be conjured up out of nothing. An institution, considered in terms of its origin and specific properties, is not the result of individual wills; it is the product of an objective social environment which, though modifiable by human action, is beyond the control of any given person. The quest for utility as expressed in terms of happiness, self-interest, etc.
A desire cannot produce an institution unless there already exist the necessary social forces to work with.
Sociology is not a branch of psychology, because social facts the fundamental data of social science cannot be reduced to, or explained in terms of, the conscious states and processes of individuals. From social interaction there emerges a new level of reality that could not exist in the mind of the isolated individual, and it is the business of the sociologist to study the causal factors that produce this world of social facts. As this synthesis occurs outside each one of us since a plurality of consciousness are involved it has necessarily the effect of crystallizing, or instituting outside ourselves, certain modes of action and certain ways of judging which are independent of the particular individual will considered separately.
Social Laws, Part 9 | asequgyxedyk.gq
From the synthesis of individual interaction there emerge institutions , which consist of collective beliefs and modes of behavior. Methodological individualists freely admit that many social phenomena are the unintended outcome of human action and therefore cannot be reduced to the intentions of individual actors. See my discussion in Part 6. Just as chemical interaction produces a new phenomenon with emergent properties that are not possessed by its isolated elements, so social interaction produces a new phenomenon—the institution—that also possesses emergent properties.
Emile Durkheim Essay
We have seen, however, that psychologism has also been rejected by many individualists Hayek, Popper, etc. This is a very problematic notion, to say the least. We should distinguish collective consciousness from individual consciousness simply because those phenomena exhibit different properties:. Individual consciousness result from the nature of organic and psychical being taken in isolation, collective consciousness from a plurality of beings of this kind.
The results cannot therefore fail to be different, since the component parts differ to this extent. This exteriority does not mean that society is a separate psychical entity, one that is located in space outside the minds of individuals.
The Philisopher's Views on Social Change and the Industrial Revolution
On the contrary, I found the process frustrating because, try as I may, I was unable to state some of his ideas in what I regard as an intelligible fashion. Well, given my respect for Nisbet as I discussed in Part 5 , I was willing to go along for the ride and learn how Durkheim applied his fundamental concepts to specific problems. Even that proved a bumpy ride, however, as we shall see in my next essay. George H.
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How Durkheim Matters Today
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