Organizational culture research paper

Mario Reda Table of Contents Chapter Introduction Organizational culture is very important because it is all about the beliefs, philosophy, principles and morals that every individuals will share within an organization. Furthermore, organizational culture brings unity, loyalty, direction, competition and identity in an organizational and making it an influential element in the accomplishment of the organization.

Relationship between Organizational Culture, Leadership Behavior and Job Satisfaction

Therefore, it has a powerful influence on the individuals because it sways how employees should act, dress and execute their. Organizational Culture is defined according to Kreitner and Kinicki , p. By, defining what organizational culture. We will first look at how organizational culture impacts organizational structure and vice versa. And within the content of project management, the criteria of the success of project management will be demonstrated.

Furthermore, the previous studies about the relationship between organizational culture and the success of project management will be referred to. Eventually, some problems unanswered on this filed or some gaps that missed by former studies will be indicated. Introduction Culture play major role within the organization.

Organizational culture positively influences organizational behavior. People join number of organizations during their life. The organizations act as social tools to build the relationships between the individuals. Organizations are boundary maintaining, socially constructed and goal directed system, which focuses on the processes involved in the persistence, genesis. They employ 35, people and operate in 48 countries. Headquarter is based in England UK.

Large manufacturing plants are located in American, Singapore and China. A hierarchical structure is used to manage the company. As a giant company, they choose hierarchical structure to manage the company. It is a traditional and effective structure for Rolls Royce to supervise and develop the. Although the culture literature has at times focused on the culture of an organization as shared.

Organizational Culture Organizational Culture exists in every firm, thereby placing a significant impact on the motivational factors of employees. In fact, every firm has its exceptional personality known as culture. How Culture Affects Productivity Organizational culture and productivity are closely related.

But it is more than that - it is related to quality, to customer needs and to labour relations. In other words, productivity and good management are inseparable. Productivity is a result of motivation, and motivation thrives in a good climate. If management is to transform. There is no single definition for organizational culture but the concept consists of socially developed rules of conduct that are shared by members of an organization.

A strong culture constructs a unified employee atmosphere, whereas a weak culture lacks a shared sense of distinction between employees. Like society, sub-cultures exist within organizations. Organizational culture and national culture are significantly important in current marketing environment. Organizational culture mainly shows the value and the roles inside the organization. However, national culture is the directing of organizational culture and influence both leadership and employees deeply from their personal values. Furthermore, the relationship between organizational culture and national culture has impacts on leaderships, employees, job.

Nevertheless, Organisational culture is a set of beliefs, values, and norms, together with symbols like dramatized events and personalities, which represents the unique character of an organization, and provides the context for action in it and by it Deshpande and Webster, ; Ravasi and Schultz, ; Xiaoming and.

Organizational culture is the shared beliefs, values and behaviours of the group. Theorists of organizations believe that organizational culture represents the pattern of behaviours, values, and beliefs of an organization. Hence, studies around organizational culture have been seen as great helpful and essential for understanding organizations and their behaviours.

Additionally, organizational culture has. According to Organic Workspaces, n. The organizational culture ideally influences its decisions and actions Tharp, n. Watkins, also defines organizational culture as a consistent and observable pattern of behavior in organizations. Many studies have proved that organisational culture has a deep influence on many different aspects of an organisational process, employees and their performance. Lim, A variety of studies occupies that the performance is increased to achieve the organisations goals when employees acknowledge the same norms and values of the organisation.

The cultures differ and. Review Culture may be viewed as a group 's "collective being" which is both static and dynamic in nature, and may be studied by looking at the dimensions of the "collective being" at a point in time as well as over time RALSTON et al.

In This Section

According to his thesis there are eight types of corporate culture existing in Singapore. Organizational culture refers to how the various types of things are performed in the organisation. In other words it can be said that how the work is executed, and whether that work is satisfactory or unsatisfactory. Organizational Culture Essay. Once culture is established and accepted, they become a strong leadership tool to communicate the leader 's beliefs and values to organizational members, and especially new Continue Reading.

Organisational Continue Reading. Specifically, consider the assumed structure of the two network i. Future work could explore this aspect by considering various topologies e. The influence of such intervention can be explored by varying the social rank distribution across the organization. As an example, consider the case where the distribution of social rank resembles a Normal distribution—in effect it implies that the majority of individuals have the same rank, with few deviating on higher and lower levels of hierarchy.

In contrast, consider the case where social rank is distributed based on a Log-Normal distribution—in effect it suggests that the majority of individuals are found on the lower levels of the organization with a few being on much higher levels. Generally, all three cases of hierarchical structure illustrate qualitatively similar behavior albeit being quantitatively different.

In terms of network coherence, all three cases follow a similar, non-monotonic trend. Overall, the case of Log-Normal hierarchy results in reduced performance under both measures, with the Empirical and the Normal case being increasingly close in terms of both measures. In particular, both Normal and Empirical result in similar network coherence values, with this convergence breaking down at the latter stages of the simulation.

At this point, the Normal case reaches the highest network coherence value, followed by the Empirical and the Log-Normal case—see Fig 8a. In terms of the average cognitive coherence, the Log-Normal case results to distinctively lower levels of average cognitive coherence, with both Empirical and Normal cases achieving increasingly similar levels Fig 8b. The empirically-obtained hierarchical structure is included for reference blue line. It is worth noting that the relevance of these results extends beyond the dissemination of risk-related cultural beliefs to the general dissemination of various quantities across an organization.

For example, increased levels of both cognitive and network coherence are bound to increase the rate of information exchange and hence accelerate collective functions such as organizational learning. Such evidence is consistent with recent empirical studies that highlight a negative relationship between increased organizational structure in the form of hierarchical levels and internal team learning [ 65 , 66 ], whilst providing a plausible mechanism that may be responsible for noting such effects.

In this paper, we have proposed an empirically-grounded, integrative model that was used to tackle the following previous assumptions; a belief independence; b increasingly context agnostic; by utilizing networks of beliefs and incorporating social rank which is an important aspect in the context of organizations. Thereby, results indicate that increased social conformity can be increasingly damaging to the evolution of organizational culture—a view consistent with past empirical work [ 61 ].

Such insight is consistent with recent empirical work [ 65 , 66 ] reinforcing the plausibility of the proposed model. By isolating the influence of peer-pressure and social rank, a disparity of scales, in terms of their influence, emerges, with peer-pressure having a greater impact on the macro scale i. As a result, future attempts focusing on the influence of social conformity to organizational behavior should follow similarly integrative approaches otherwise they risk missing the interplay of influence between the macro and micro organizational levels.

Document contains additional clarifications and results. Table A. Central themes of survey. Spectrum of the six central themes on which the survey builds on. Figure A. Power rank histogram of individuals. Figure B. Conceptualization: CE. Data curation: CE. Formal analysis: CE. Investigation: NA. Methodology: CE. Resources: CE. Software: CE. Supervision: AJ NA. Visualization: CE. Writing — original draft: CE. Browse Subject Areas? Click through the PLOS taxonomy to find articles in your field. Abstract The complex nature of organizational culture challenges our ability to infer its underlying dynamics from observational studies.

Literature review Left alone, it is reasonable to assume that every individual would possess a unique set of beliefs, negating the very notion of shared beliefs—and to an extent—organizational culture. Download: PPT. Fig 1. Social interactions between individuals green explicitly capture social effects e. Methods Belief network An empirical dataset is used as the basis to construct the belief network of each agent. Fig 2. Fig 3. Belief network for a given individual, where each node corresponds to a belief and links corresponds to belief associations.

Social network To account for the role of social conformity in the process of belief exchange, individuals are embedded in a network structure which represents the social interactions between them. Dynamics The rules dictating the dynamics of the agent-based model are as follows: at each time step t, a random pair of connected agents i and j is chosen, with agent i source randomly choosing an association from its internal belief network and sending it agent j receiver.

Results Conflicting dynamics The model proposed is characterized by conflicting dynamics, where agents strive for cognitive consistency yet may forego it for the sake of social conformity—the latter being a twofold aspect combining elements of peer-pressure and social rank.

Fig 4. Organizational vs. Fig 5. Fig 6. Fig 7. Discussion Organizational culture emerges via the aggregation of beliefs of each agent that the organization is composed of. Theoretical implications Disparity between organizational levels. The role of peer-pressure and social rank. Limitations This work has some limitations that provide opportunities for further work. Fig 8. Conclusion In this paper, we have proposed an empirically-grounded, integrative model that was used to tackle the following previous assumptions; a belief independence; b increasingly context agnostic; by utilizing networks of beliefs and incorporating social rank which is an important aspect in the context of organizations.

Supporting information.

S1 File. Additional supporting information. S1 Dataset.


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Survey responses. Dataset containing survey answers used to initialize the model. Author Contributions Conceptualization: CE. References 1.

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Organizational Culture Edgar Schein

Reviews of modern physics Science — Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences — Annual review of sociology: — Granovetter M Threshold models of collective behavior. American journal of sociology: — Festinger L A theory of cognitive dissonance: Stanford university press. The Oxford handbook of analytical sociology: — Organization Science — Providing ethical training.

Rewarding ethical acts and punishing unethical ones. Providing protective mechanisms. Employee role on changing unethical behavior:. Secretly or publicly reporting unethical actions to a higher level authority within the organization. Secretly or publicly reporting unethical actions to someone outside the organization.

Secretly or publicly threatening an offender or responsible manager with reporting unethical actions. Quietly or publicly refusing to implement an unethical order or policy. Types of Organizational Culture: Market Culture 1. Organizational stability is given importance 2. Tends to be an achievement oriented culture 4. Performance is evaluated based on output generated. Directive style of leadership is followed. Adhocracy 1. Establishment of informal organization. Led by charismatic leaders 5. Creative, risk taking managers 6. Employees are growth oriented 7. Clan Culture 1. Leadership style shows concern for people 3.

Participative decision making 4. Performance is based on the extent to which employees uphold the values 6. Quality of relationship maintained among the members. Hierarchical Culture 1. Conservative style of leadership 2. Employees behavior is judged on the basis of formally established performance criteria. Researcher Jeffrey Sonnenfeld identified the following four types of cultures.

Academy Culture Employees are highly skilled and tend to stay in the organization, while working their way up the ranks. The organization provides a stable environment in which employees can develop and exercise their skills. Examples are universities, hospitals, large corporations, etc.

Relationship between Organizational Culture, Leadership Behavior and Job Satisfaction

Baseball Team Culture Employees are "free agents" who have highly prized skills. They are in high demand and can rather easily get jobs elsewhere. This type of culture exists in fast-paced, high-risk organizations, such as investment banking, advertising, etc. Club Culture The most important requirement for employees in this culture is to fit into the group. Usually employees start at the bottom and stay with the organization.

The organization promotes from within and highly values seniority. Examples are the military, some law firms, etc. Fortress Culture Employees don't know if they'll be laid off or not. These organizations often undergo massive reorganization. There are many opportunities for those with timely, specialized skills. Examples are savings and loans, large car companies, etc.

There are also many different types of culture just like there are different types of personality. Authoritarian Culture There is centralization of power with the leader and obedience to orders and discipline are stressed. Any disobedience is punished severely to set an example to others.

The basic assumption is that the leader always acts in the interests of the organization. Participative Culture Participative culture tends to emerge where most organizational members see themselves as equals and take part in decision-making. Mechanistic Culture The mechanistic culture exhibits the values of bureaucracy. Organizational jobs are created around narrow specializations and people think of their careers mainly within these specializations.

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There is a great deal of departmental loyalty and inter-departmental animosity. This sort of culture resists change and innovation. Organic Culture In this case, authority hierarchy, departmental boundaries, rules and regulations, etc. The main emphasis is on task accomplishment, team work and free flow of communication. The culture stresses flexibility, consultation, change and innovation.

Sub-cultures and Dominant culture Each department of an organization may have its own culture representing a sub-culture of the system. An organizational culture emerges when there is integration of all the departments into a unified whole. Why people are reluctant to their own culture? The existing organizational cultures itself resist change.

Organizational culture has a deep influence on individual personality. So for changing organizational culture, there is also a corresponding impact on personal behavior. Small modifications does not alter the whole organizational culture, while creating small groups within the organization with their different taste, and forms the subculture within the main culture. Cultural change models, like Lewins three step change model, these are heavy work process and needs long time effort from managers, employees to change an element of culture and stabilize it within the organization.

Read Free For 30 Days. Much more than documents. Discover everything Scribd has to offer, including books and audiobooks from major publishers. Start Free Trial Cancel anytime. Organizational Culture Term Paper. Flag for inappropriate content. Related titles. Carousel Previous Carousel Next. Impact of Organizational Culture on the Performance of Tesco. Jump to Page. Search inside document. Term Paper Organizational Behavior Meaning of Organizational Culture: Culture is the soul of the organization the beliefs and values, how they are manifested.

Daft The corporate culture consists of the norms, values and unwritten rules of conduct of an organization as well as management styles, priorities, beliefs and inter-personal behavior that prevail. Together they create a climate that influences how well people communicate, plan and make decisions Larry Senn Organizational culture comprises pattern of shared values, beliefs and assumptions considered to be the appropriate way to think and act within an organization.

Term Paper Organizational Behavior The founders of an organization generally tend to have a large impact on establishing the early culture. If results fall short of goals, prices are adjusted to stimulate necessary change b Bureaucratic control mechanism: relies on formal authority.

The control process consists of adjusting rules and regulations and issuing directives c Clan control mechanism: relies on shared beliefs and values. Provide a map that members can rely on to choose appropriate course of action. Communication: Culture reduces communication problems in two ways: a No need to communicate in matters for which shared assumptions already exist things go without saying b Shared assumptions provide guidelines and cues to help interpret messages that are received 5.

Term Paper Organizational Behavior Changes the view of work - Most people have a negative connotation of the word work. Term Paper Organizational Behavior Rituals and Ceremonies: Corporate rituals are repetitive sequences of activates that express and reinforce the values of the organization, what goals are most important, and which people are important and which ones are superfluous. Sense of Identity: Enhances employee commitment towards organizational goals. Term Paper Organizational Behavior 13 5.

Act as a control mechanism for the benefit of the organization Measuring Organizational Culture: There are many different ways to measure a company's organizational culture. There are many characteristics that make up a healthy corporation, and here is a ten point list of some of the most common factors that will be found in virtually all healthy organizational cultures: Organizational pride: Employees who are embarrassed to mention where they work are obviously not in a good environment.

Term Paper Organizational Behavior 14 Constant review of profits and costs: Nothing is assumed as Gospel truth from year to year. Employee role on changing unethical behavior: 1. Directive style of leadership is followed Adhocracy 1. Term Paper Organizational Behavior 18 There are also many different types of culture just like there are different types of personality. Term Paper Organizational Behavior 19 Why people are reluctant to their own culture?

Term Paper Organizational Behavior 20 References: 1. Organizational Behavior Stephen P. Robbins 11th Edition 2. Edgar H. Redefining Culture John R. Baldwin, Sandra L.


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