The multilevel cumulative logit procedure is appropriate for this analysis due to the ability to analyze changes within and between individuals and groups over time, taking into consideration the dynamic role of behaviors and circumstances over the life course. This model assumes that the random intercept and random slope follow a normal distribution and are independent across respondents.
The proportional odds assumption was not violated. All were conducted using Stata. Model 2: The second model examines socioeconomic differences in the steepness of health decline. Specifically, it examines whether those with lower levels of education experienced successively steeper rates of health decline, whether increases in income in are associated with steadier rates of decline, and whether increases in wealth are associated with steadier rates of decline of self-rated health. Finally, socioeconomic measures and all health-related and sociodemographic covariates are included.
Race and Ethnic Studies | Whitman College
This model includes all measures and covariates. Table 1 shows that self-rated health varies by socio-demographic, socioeconomic, and health characteristics. Blacks were more likely to experience mortality on average and Hispanics were less likely to experience mortality during the duration of the study period. As shown in Model 1 in Table 3 , blacks had a significantly lower cumulative odds of better health status over time than whites OR: 0. In Model 3 which controls for socioeconomic characteristics , the effects narrowed OR: 0. Having a high school degree or equivalent was not predictive of health decline.
Higher education predicted worse subsequent health: respondents with some college or more had 0. Income was not a significant predictor, but assets were significantly associated with improved cumulative odds of better health. For example, the coefficient for household assets decreases slightly from 1. Level of education was a significant predictor in the opposite direction predicted. The findings that whites had steadier rates of decline than did blacks and Hispanics among an older adult, chronically ill population from the age of 65 suggest that even with access to diabetes-related health care treatments through Medicare and other age-associated programs, the health gaps between whites and non-whites grow over time.
These factors remained significant while controlling for private health insurance and body mass index. Some socioeconomic characteristics were protective against health decline over time, as found in previous research [ 17 , 18 ]. These relationships remained significant controlling for BMI and health insurance. The contributions of wealth, income, and education vary at different points of the life course to the onset or progression of a chronic disease.
The finding that higher levels of education are significantly associated with more rapid rates of decline also warrants further study. Previous longitudinal research has suggested that education has less to do with disease outcomes, but more with the initial structures of ascribed statuses within a society relative to other socioeconomic measures [ 34 , 35 ]. These findings provide a unique contribution to research on aging, chronic disease, and health disparities. Additional analyses are needed to gain greater depth into the causal relationships between these structurally linked characteristics and health status.
Such analyses could focus of mediating factors such as health insurance or health behaviors. It is necessary to further examine the mechanisms and processes underlying these divergent paths of health. The mechanisms underlying these divergent paths should be further explored to address how and why individuals experience disadvantage and if this accumulates in health disadvantage over time through racism, health discrimination, or segregation among older adults [ 13 , 16 , 36 , 37 ].
Further, access to private insurance in addition to Medicare could represent greater continuity of care which could be associated with better self-care behaviors, outcomes, or earlier disease discovery among diabetics [ 38 ]. Additional characteristics that should be examined in future studies include the stress, neighborhood characteristics, and quality of care over the life span.
The study has several limitations. Health is a complex state, not limited to self-reported health status.
The study relies primarily on self-reported data, which could introduce bias of differential expectations by group. This analysis does account for differential expectations partially by examining changes among the same individuals over time; however, it is feasible that the individuals change their reference categories over time as their social position or health status also changes, which might introduce bias [ 39 ].
The population to which these findings can be generalized are older adults with diabetes in the US who have survived to the age of This analysis follows time, rather than focusing on the transitions of age or cohort-specific changes e. As with most longitudinal studies of older adults, subject mortality could result in underestimated associations. Mortality is related to worse prior health reports and is more common among blacks and persons with low education in this sample.
Subjects must have also survived until the age of 65 to participate in the study, which exposes the different segments of the original HRS sample to selective mortality disproportionately. Mortality during the follow-up period among participants with worse health could also result in underestimated associations.
This analysis therefore does not exclude mortality from the estimation of the natural course of diabetes. Finally, the relationship between health and social characteristics is multi-faceted. More research is needed that focuses on intersectionalities, suggesting that the disadvantage is not simply additive or interactive, but could be multiplicative. Future analyses are necessary to better understand how social forces fundamentally shape illness experiences, outcomes, and how advantage and disadvantage unfold into and within chronic illness in the remainder of the life span.
Diabetes Care. J Clin Exp Neuropsychol. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention: Diabetes surveillance system. J Gerontol. Brit J Clin Psychol. Ann Epidemiol. Kingston RS, Smith JP: Socioeconomic status and racial and ethnic differences in functional status associated with chronic diseases. Am J Public Health. J Natl Cancer Inst. Am J Med Sci. Wilkinson RG: Unhealthy societies: The afflictions of inequality. Public Health Rep. Life course trajectories of poverty and health.
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Am Sociol Rev. Res Aging. J Health Soc Behav. J Aging Health. Lutfey K, Freese J: Toward some fundamentals of fundamental causality: Socioeconomic status and health in the routine clinic visit for diabetes. Health and Retirement Study: Public use dataset. Herd P, Goesling B, House JS: Socioeconomic position and health: The differential effects of education versus income on the onset versus progression of health problems.
Nazroo JY: The structuring of ethnic inequalities in health: Economic position, racial discrimination, and racism. Williams DR: Race, socioeconomic status, and health: The added effects of racism and discrimination. Ann NY Acad Sci. Socioeconomic status and health in industrialized nations: Social, psychological, and biological pathways.
Med Care. Working Papers Download references. The author is particularly grateful to Professors Sarah Burgard, Renee Anspach, and Jersey Liang for guidance on this manuscript, as well as to Brady West for extensive statistical support and expertise. Correspondence to Emily J Nicklett. EN conceived of the study, participated in the design of the study and performed the statistical analysis. EN drafted the manuscript and conducted all revisions. This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd. Reprints and Permissions. Search all BMC articles Search. Abstract Background There are pervasive racial and socioeconomic differences in health status among older adults with type 2 diabetes.
Methods The study population was a subset of diabetic adults aged 65 and older from the Health and Retirement Study. Results Relative to whites, blacks had a significantly lower cumulative odds of better health status over time OR: 0. Open Peer Review reports.
Background Diabetes is projected to increase in age-adjusted prevalence 2. Analytic Sample Longitudinal data spanning 16 years is examined.
Table of contents
Outcome measure Health decline was assessed by changes in self-reported health over time. Socioeconomic measures A baseline measure of education was used.
Covariates Analyzed Multivariate models controlled for health and socio-demographic covariates. Results Descriptive Statistics Table 1 shows that self-rated health varies by socio-demographic, socioeconomic, and health characteristics. Conclusions These findings provide a unique contribution to research on aging, chronic disease, and health disparities. Reproductive Ethics in Applied Ethics. Usually the ethics of humor revolves around the content of humor.
After giving a synopsis and exposing some shortcomings of the recent controversies, this paper takes into account additional aspects and proposes a change of perspective from token to type level and deploys tools of the philosophy of language to tackle the question whether a joke as a type can be considered morally flawed irrespective of its tokens.
After exploring possible ways one can think of to furnish evidence for the Moreover, the presented approach increases the resolution of the debate and provides a framework to capture other hitherto neglected questions of the philosophy humor as well. Humour in Aesthetics. Can being, more specifically, black being, be thematized as visible from within the particularity of a given faith tradition, its practices and mode of being in the world? To narrow the question to one specific faith tradition, Christianity: Can blackness be visible within the visibility of the Christian factumthe incarnate God, Jesus of Nazareth?
The first two chapters, drawing on the work of Albert J. Raboteau, Charles H. Long, and James H. Cone, show how African American religious scholarship, to varying Various are the names of the fundament: Africanity, the religious consciousness, the ontological horizon of blackness, and so forth. Chapter 3 uncovers the Kantian philosophico-religious structure at work here, the very framework that spawned modernity's first thoroughgoing race theory. Black being is shown to be visible, iconically opaque, and, thus, theologically free as Christic and Paschal being.
This theological transcription of being is coterminous with an emancipatory social arrangement of being: black being as 'Christified' is ecclesial being. This does not silence the historical cadences of black being; rather it dislodges the history of black being from the colonial gaze. Placing patristic Christology, as it culminates in Chalcedon I and refined in the neo-Chalcedonian debates, in conversation with the modern construction of race and being, I establish a vantage from which to criticize Immanuel Kant's supersessionistic Christianity, out of which emerged his race qua colonial theory.
Yet, it also provides a vantage from which to articulate a non-supersessionistic Christianity of the embodiment of God in Jesus of Nazareth for the visibility of black being and, thus, speaks to a distressing aporia in African American religious studies and theology. In chapter one, the dissertation defines what exactly, is black power and what is peace.
The remainder of the dissertation is dedicated to understanding the major theological categories in James Cone's work. Chapter two is an exploration of Cone's understanding of God and how exactly black power determines his particular understanding of God. The key argument to be observed is that black power impacts Cone's understanding of God in such a way as to place God squarely in the community of In the community of the oppressed, God fights for the cause of black liberation.
By depicting God this way, could this be in violation of peace? Then in chapter three, we turn to an investigation of Cone's understanding of Christology. The important issue before us here is to see how black power uniquely focuses Cone's understanding of Christ's message as being that of black power. That is, Jesus preaches the radical message of black power on behalf of oppressed black people who are seeking liberation from the bondage of white oppression.
Is this radical interpretation a violation of peace? Chapter four deals with the notion of human being in Cone's theology. Here, black power encourages Cone to emphasize the blackness of humanity in disregard of humanity's whiteness. The argument in this regard is that blacks in America have been brainwashed to judge themselves in light of whiteness where their humanity is determined by how white one can become.
Cone turns the matter around and emphasizes blackness as "beautiful" and as the litmus test to determine what it means to be black and human in America. Turning to chapter five, the investigation moves into an analysis of the black church and what role it plays in the struggle for liberation. By wedding black power with his understanding of ecclesiology, Cone defines the church as a liberating force in the black community where black power is preached and practiced.
Then in chapter six, the dissertation discusses Cone's view of ethics. The importance of this discussion lies in whether or not black power ethics seeks reconciliation with white people. Cone's answer is "yes," but on black peoples terms. Finally, the conclusion answers the question if peace has been violated in Cone's radical reinterpretation of theology. This project makes new contributions to race-based affirmative action discourse.
I engage interdisciplinary work on racial redress and racial healing concerns , and explore the relationship of race-based affirmative action to these movements. My concern is with the possibility of organizing affirmative action to promote African American rectificatory and "white" redemptive interests in racial healing. These interests point to the possibility of a more racially just future. Normalized "white" participation in racial injustice includes repressive forgetting and other collective deceptions about America's racial history and performance of "white" identities amidst racialized commodification.
I focus on two commodification practices, and resultant redress claims and obligations. The first is the commodification of what W. Du Bois marked as the "gift" of black labor.
Thesis statement on racism
The second is participation in systems of "white" privilege undergirded by recognized property interests in "whiteness. I look to the histories of racial redress programs and African American redress demands, and work within existing legal parameters to articulate complimentary new directions for race-based affirmative action to intersect recent redress and healing movements.
Of particular importance is my discussion of interpersonal affirmative action practiced as "white" "gifts" of atonement. These "gifts" include developing new self-understandings and new attitudes toward redress responsibilities, promoting more just and healing ways to perform "white" identities and "white" culture-making, and supporting more thoroughgoing institutional redress.
The project focuses on the work of W. Du Bois, contemporary and historical African American philosophy, interdisciplinary Critical Race Theory and Critical White Studies, and emerging scholarship on collective redress and healing processes. This dissertation proposes a reconsideration of the some of work of W. Du Bois from the period to The study reconstructs Du Bois's understanding of the so-called Negro question and considers his challenges to existing interpretations of this social problem.
Methodologically the study proceeds by way of a close examination of three principal early texts of Du Bois's, "The Conservation of Races," "Strivings of the Negro People," and "The Study of the Negro Problems," all written or The principal orientation of the study is toward the elucidation of the conceptual infrastructure of Du Bois's thought and practice, political and intellectual.
The argument at the core of the study is that Du Bois formulated an original understanding of the Negro as both an ontological being and a social subject, one that bears implications for the social sciences, the humanities, theology, philosophy and other related fields. On the basis of the re-thinking of Du Bois's work developed through this examination, the dissertation points toward a reconsideration of the status of Du Bois in the history of thought.
Despite the abolition of racial slavery and legal segregation, James Baldwin believed that African Americans were not recognized as free and equal citizens and that they would not be until Americans of all races examined the racial assumptions undergirding American society. His essays, which were written between the s and the s, provide a valuable guide for political theorists interested in the possibilities of democracy in a society where white supremacy has been discredited and yet the distinction between "white" and Reading Baldwin's essays against contemporary works of political theory, this dissertation investigates the gap between democratic principles and American practices.
It defends a contextualist approach to political life and aims to show how attention to race consciousness and to the specificity of black citizens' experiences reveals the hollowness of claims for race-blind theorizing. The second chapter challenges assumptions about the construction of cultural identity that overlook the complicated relationship between "white" and "black" in American experiences. In Baldwin's hands, W.
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Du Bois's metaphor of double consciousness becomes a critical tool, revealing how white Americans' identities, no less than those of black Americans, are bound up with race consciousness. Silence about the significance of race in defining political identity, citizenship, is addressed in the third chapter through a discussion of the public and private power of racial images. Comparing Baldwin's essays to Michael Walzer's work on social criticism, the fourth chapter identifies ways in which African Americans' American history is neglected even by a theorist who takes historical identity seriously.
The concluding chapter addresses the difficulties of articulating experiences that have been excluded from the dominant discourse. What joins these chapters is a suspicion that matters of race are excluded precisely where they expose the limits of theorists' capacity to justify political principles in the face of the countervailing evidence of practice. Thus, the acknowledgement of something other than this binary system offers new ways of theorizing about race, particularly concerning the sociopolitical implications of mixed-race designation.
This paper argues that the visually mixed-race person has a certain direct ability to challenge the binary and its racist logic. Furthermore, this paper goes The project emerged from the recognition that the events of 11 September , prompted new efforts at containment with both domestic and international implications. This study reports on the current stereotypes of ten ethnic groups.
Black college students, 38 males and 49 females enrolled in undergraduate psychology courses at a black religiously affiliated college in the southeast, indicated traits they felt were typical of each of ten ethnic groups. The traits were selected from a list of 84 adjectives originally used by Katz and Braly in a study of racial stereotypes. Clear stereotypes emerged for six ethnic groups; all were relatively positive except one, whites, The most favorable stereotypes were of Chinese and Jews. The stereotype of blacks ranked third in favorableness, followed by Italians and Germans.
Interracial relations have focused primarily on decreasing white prejudice and stereotypes of blacks. The paper presents a novel interpretation of the function of the word "human. Dehumanization in Social and Political Philosophy. Language and Society in Philosophy of Language.