Short Paragraph on Conservation of Forest Words measures need to be put in place to protect wildlife, Short Paragraph on Christmas Forest conservation in the United States Forest conservation is the practice of planning and Forests provide wildlife with a suitable habitat for living Plants and trees help to recycle the soil nutrients sceneries alongside the wildlife forms inhabiting the forests, Water Conservation - July How to Conserve Forest Resources?
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The various central legislations for forest conservation and wildlife protection provide a powerful In need of qualified essay help online or professional. The Conservation Of The History Help About Conservation of wildlife essay Volunteers can help wwf wildlife conservation of known as well as we fish and be it is wildlife. Like forests essay, Why is wildlife conservation necessary? Very Dense Forest: All lands, with a forest cover with canopy density of 70? Mangrove cover is the area covered under mangrove vegetation as interpreted digitally from remote sensing data.
It is a part of forest cover and also classified into three classes viz.
Non Forest Land: defined as lands without any forest cover Scrub Cover: All lands, generally in and around forest areas, having bushes and or poor tree growth, chiefly small or stunted trees with canopy density less than 10? India and the United States cooperated in , using Landsat MSS with spatial resolution of 80 metres, to get accurate forest distribution data. India thereafter switched to digital image and advanced satellites with 23 metres resolution and software processing of images to get more refined data on forest quantity and forest quality.
India now assesses its forest distribution data biennially. The forest census data thus obtained and published by the Government of India suggests the five states with largest area under forest cover as the following: Madhya Pradesh: 7. To achieve these objectives, theNational Commission on Agriculture in recommended the reorganisation of state forestry departments and advocated the concept of social forestry. The commission itself worked on the first two objectives, emphasising traditional forestry and wildlife activities; in pursuit of the third objective, the commission recommended the establishment of a new kind of unit to develop community forests.
Following the leads of Gujarat and Uttar Pradesh, a number of other states also established community-based forestry agencies that emphasised programmes on farm forestry, timber management, extension forestry, reforestation of degraded forests, and use of forests for recreational purposes. In the s, such socially responsible forestry was encouraged by state community forestry agencies. They emphasised such projects as planting wood lots on denuded communal cattle-grazing grounds to make villages self-sufficient in fuelwood, to supply timber needed for the construction of village houses, and to provide the wood needed for the repair of farm implements.
Both individual farmers and tribal communities were also encouraged to grow trees for profit. For example, in Gujarat, one of the more aggressive states in developing programmes of socioeconomic importance, the forestry department distributed million tree seedlings in The fast-growing eucalyptus is the main species being planted nationwide, followed by pineand poplar. The Forest Rights Bill is likely to be harmful to forest conservation and ecological security.
The Forest Rights Bill became a law since The government should work closely with mining companies. Revenue generated from lease of mines must be pooled into a dedicated fund to conserve and improve the quality of forests in the region where the mines are located. Power to declare ecologically sensitive areas must be with each Indian state. The mandate of State Forest Corporations and government owned monopolies must be changed.
Government should reform regulations and laws that ban felling of trees and transit of wood within India. Sustainable agro-forestry and farm forestry must be encouraged through financial and regulatory reforms, particularly on privately owned lands. Many tribal are giving up their traditional livelihood and taking up farming and cattle rearing in the forest areas causing un-repairable damage to forests. The erstwhile protectors of forests are slowly turning into bane of forests and its wildlife.
Government should devise schemes to avert this process and save the dwindling forest area and its flora and fauna. Tribal people have extraordinary understanding of forest flora and fauna which can be productively utilized. All the tribals shall be employed by the government in the expansion and protection of forests and its wildlife till their descendants get educated and diversify into industrial and service sectors.
India is a significant importer of forest products. Logs account for 67? This preference is explained by the availability of inexpensive labor and the large number of productive sawmills. India is growing market for partially finished and ready-to-assemble furniture. China and Malaysia account for 60? The Indian market is accustomed to teak and other hardwoods that are perceived to be more resistant to termites, decay and are able to withstand the tropical climate.
Teak wood is typically seen as a benchmark with respect to grade and prices of other wood species. Major imported wood species are tropical woods such as mahogany, garjan, marianti, and sapeli. Plantation timber includes teak, eucalyptus, and poplar, as well as spruce, pine, and fir. India imports small quantities of temperate hardwoods such as ash, maple, cherry, oak, walnut, beech, etc.
In , India imported million cubic metres of roundwood mostly for fuel wood application, Biodiversity in Indian forests[edit source editbeta] Indian forests are more than trees and an economic resource. Indian forests represent one of the 12 mega biodiverse regions of the world. India is home to 12?
About animal species, representing over 7? Over mammal species are found here. India has one of the richest variety of bird species on earth, hosting about Many of these flora and fauna species are endemic to India. Indian forests and wetlands serve as temporary home to many migrant birds. Trading in exotic birds[edit source editbeta] India was, until , one of the largest exporters of wild birds to international bird markets. Most of the birds traded were parakeets and munias. Most of these birds were exported to countries in Europe and the Middle East.
The passage of the law stopped the legal exports, but illegal trafficking has continued. In , for example, an attempt to smuggle some 10, wild birds was discovered, and these birds were confiscated at the Mumbai international airport. According to a WWF-India published report, trapping and trading of some species of birds continues in India, representing 25? Tens of thousands of birds are trapped from the forests of India, and traded every month to serve the demand for bird pets.
Another market driver for bird trapping and trade is the segment of Indians who on certain religious occasions, buy birds in captivity and free them as an act of kindness to all living beings of the world. Trappers and traders know of the need for piety in these people, and ensure a reliable supply of wild birds so that they can satisfy their urge to do good. The trappers, a detailed survey and investigation reveals are primarily tribal communities.
The trappers lead a life of poverty and migrate over time. Their primary motivation was economics and the need to financially support their families. For every bird that reaches the market for a sale, many more die. Instead of criminalising their skills at finding, recognising, attracting and capturing birds, India should offer them employment to re-apply their skills through scientific management, protection and wildlife preservation.
Allow captive and humane breeding of certain species of birds, to satisfy the market demand for pet birds. Better and continuous enforcement to prevent trapping practices, stop trading and end smuggling of wild birds of India through neighboring countries that have not banned trading of wild birds. Education and continued media exposure of the ecological and environmental harm done by wild bird trade, in order to reduce the demand for trapped wild birds as pets. Conservation[edit source editbeta] The role of forests in the national economy and in ecology was further emphasised in the National Forest Policy, which focused on ensuring environmental stability, restoring the ecological balance, and preserving the remaining forests.
Other objectives of the policy were meeting the need for fuelwood, fodder, and small timber for rural and tribal people while recognising the need to actively involve local people in the management of forest resources. Also in , the Forest Conservation Act of was amended to facilitate stricter conservation measures.
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A new target was to increase the forest cover to 33? In June , the central government adopted resolutions that combined forest science with social forestry, that is, taking the sociocultural traditions of the local people into. The cumulative area afforested during the period was nearly , square kilometres. However, despite large-scale tree planting programmes, forestry is one arena in which India has actually regressed since independence. Annual fellings at about four times the growth rate are a major cause. Widespread pilfering by villagers for firewood and fodder also represents a major decrement.
In addition, the National Forest Policy noted, the forested area has been shrinking as a result of land cleared for farming and development programmes. Between and , as evidenced by satellite data, India has reversed the deforestation trend. Chipko Movement[edit source editbeta] Main article: Chipko Movement Chipko movement in India started in s around a dispute on how and who should have a right to harvest forest resources.
What caused Chipko is now a subject of debate; some neopopulists theorise Chipko as an environmental movement and an attempt to save forests, while others suggest that Chipko movement had nothing to do with eco-conservation, but was driven primarily to demand equal rights to harvest forests by local communities.
Forest conservation in the United States
According to one set of writers: Since the early s, as they realised that deforestation threatened not only the ecology but their livelihood in a variety of ways, people have become more interested and involved in conservation. The best known popular activist movement is the Chipko Movement, in which local women under the leadership of Chandi Prasad Bhatt and Sunderlal Bahuguna, decided to fight the government and the vested interests to save trees. Since initial activism in , the movement has spread and become an ecological movement leading to similar actions in other forest areas. The movement has slowed down the process of deforestation, exposed vested interests, increased ecological awareness, and demonstrated the viability of people power.
These scientists point out that very little is left of the Chipko movements today in its region of origin save for its memory, even though the quality of forests and its use remains a critical issue for India. To explain the cause of Chipko movement, they find that government officials had ignored the subsistence issues of the local communities, who depended on forests for fuel, fodder, fertiliser and sustenance resources.
These researchers claim that local interviews and fact finding confirms that local communities had filed complaints requesting the right to commercially exploit the forests around them.
Deforestation: Conservation and Sociological Effects Essay | Bartleby
Their requests were denied, while permits to fell trees and exploit those same forests were granted to government-favoured non-resident contractors including a sporting company named Symonds. A protest that became Chipko movement followed. The movement grew and Indian government responded by imposing a year ban on felling all trees above metres in the region directly as a result of the Chipko agitations. This legislation was deeply resented by many communities supporting Chipko because, the regulation further excluded the local people from the forest around them.
The people behind Chipko movement felt that the government did not understand or care about their economic situation. Chipko movement, at the very least, suggests that forests in India are an important and integral resource for communities that live within these forests, or survive near the fringes of these forests. Timber mafia and forest cover[edit source editbeta] Main article: Mafia raj A publication claimed that protected forest areas in several parts of India, such as Jammu and Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh, Karnataka and Jharkhand, were vulnerable to illegal logging by timber mafias that have coopted or intimidated forestry officials, local politicians, businesses and citizenry.
Clear-cutting is sometimes covered-up by conniving officials who report fictitious forest fires. It also sought to bring in new forms of community conservation. In addition to timber and paper products, forests provide wildlife habitat and recreational opportunities, prevent soil erosion and flooding, help provide clean air and water, and contain tremendous biodiversity.
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Forests are also an important defense against global climate change. Through the process of photosynthesis, forests produce life-giving oxygen and consume huge amounts of carbon dioxide, the atmospheric chemical most responsible for global warming. By decreasing the amount of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere, forests may reduce the effects of global warming. However, huge areas of the richest forests in the world have been cleared for wood fuel, timber products, agriculture, and livestock.
These forests are rapidly disappearing. The tropical rain forests of the Brazilian Amazon River basin were cut down at an estimated rate of 14 million hectares 35 million acres each year-an area about the size of the state of Wisconsin-in the s. The countries with the most tropical forests tend to be developing and overpopulated nations in the southern hemisphere.
Due to poor economies, people resort to clearing the forest and planting crops in order to survive. While there have been effective efforts to stop deforestation directly through boycotts of multinational corporations responsible for exploitative logging, the most effective conservation policies in these countries have been efforts to relieve poverty and expand access to education and health care.
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Based on a five-year study, the report found that forested areas throughout the world were continuing to decline at a rate of about 7. However, the rate of decline had slowed in comparison with the period from to , when the world lost about 8. Africa and South America continued to have the largest net loss of forests, while forest loss also continued in North and Central America and the Pacific Islands. Only Europe and Asia showed a net gain in forested areas due to forest planting, landscape restoration, and expansion of natural forests.
China, in particular, reported a large-scale afforestation effort. Forest Conservation is the practice of planting and maintaining forested areas for the benefit and sustainability of future generations. Around the year in the United States, forest conservation became popular with the uses ofnatural resources.